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scholarly review of the Schommer-Aikens & Hutter article

Compose a scholarly review of the Schommer-Aikens & Hutter article which entails close analysis of their research method, the assumptions grounding it, and how these influence their findings from it.

Write a 1,400- to 2,100-word philosophical analysis of the article, including the following:
– Identify the philosophical assumptions underlying the research and methodology.
– Explain the practical significance of the assumptions and their effect on the research�s applicability.
– Relate the assumptions and research methodology to the readings, including arguments made by Kuhn or other post-positivist thinkers.
– Support your analysis with references to the Schommer-Aikens and Hutter article and relevant course readings.


Philosophical assumptions

Modern scholars observe that philosophical assumptions help in defining research methodology and findings. Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s philosophical assumption is that individuals beliefs on learning and knowledge defines their meta-comprehension, interpretation of information, comprehension, and their desire to work in complicated academic work. Besides, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter hold the philosophical assumption that beliefs and perceptions define individuals’ ability to comprehend complicated academic disciplines. For instance, scholars who believe in the significant of organized knowledge have poor comprehension of technical subjects such as medicine and mathematics. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter also link their philosophical assumptions to the real life situations (Schommer-Aikins, & Hutter, 2002). Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter investigate the relationship between individuals’ perceptions on contemporary issues and their epistemological perceptions and beliefs.

Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s philosophical assumptions also revolve around the need to identify the influence of academic experience on individuals’ nature of learning and knowledge. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter assume that there is a close relationship between individuals’ perceptions on a given subject and their performances. Students with negative attitudes towards a given subject produce regrettable performances. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter link their assumptions to studies conducted by popular scholars in the modern successful global higher learning institutions. For instance, Perry 1960s survey in the Harvard University formed a notable basis of Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions and arguments. Perry observed that epistemological beliefs in higher learning institutions had a significant influence on students thinking on academic and contemporary issues (Perry, 1968). Perry concluded that most of the university students believed that authority has a significant role in defining the quality of learning in the contemporary higher learning institutions. Besides, Perry observed that empirical investigations shape individuals tentative knowledge. Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions revolve around empirical data and research findings collected by other popular scholars.

Schommer-Aikens and Hutter also assume that epistemological beliefs are common in complicated and high thinking orders. In most instances, students are interested in memorizing information without evaluating the significant of their acquired skills. Therefore, students in the contemporary higher learning institutions lack the necessary skills to practice their competence. Besides, complex and tentative information influence students’ epistemological beliefs. Furthermore, the use of the existing empirical data has helped Schommer-Aikens and Hutter observe a close relationship between high thinking order and epistemological beliefs. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter argue that students who pursue complicated disciplines such as medical studies oversimplify empirical knowledge. In most instances, students have reductive biases that force them to oversimplify complicated structures.

In addition, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter assume that students have the tendency of overlying on rigid the compartmentalization of skills and single bias on mental presentations. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s research revolves around the philosophical assumptions that implicit theories of knowledge define students argumentative reasoning. In most instances, individuals’ skills and learned theories define their individuals’ perceptions and arguments on real issues. Furthermore, the level of individual education largely defines scholars’ perceptions and argument on critical social issues. Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter observe that higher order thinking define individuals’ argument and reasoning capacity.


Practical significance of the assumptions

Schommer-Aikens and Hutter philosophical assumptions have notable effects on the research applicability. The philosophical assumptions have helped Schommer-Aikens and Hutter support their argument that epistemological beliefs shape individual’s argument and perceptions on controversial issues. Research assumptions also help researchers identify the most productive research approaches of responding to research questions. Therefore, the identified realistic research assumptions help Schommer-Aikens and Hutter create effective research questions. Research assumptions also help Schommer-Aikens and Hutter probe further on effects of the respondents’ answers to research questions. The assumptions also help the researchers think broadly on respondents’ answers. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions also help them link the presented information to the prevailing empirical data. The use of research findings from other scholars has also enriched Schommer-Aikens and Hutter competence regarding the research topic.

Besides, research assumptions help Schommer-Aikens and Hutter explore and examine alternative views regarding the research topic. The examination of alternative views has assisted researchers link the collected research data to the real life situations. So far, the information collected in the research demonstrates the relationship between research theories and daily activities in the modern higher learning institutions. For instance, the prevailing social beliefs on complicated subjects have direct effects on the performance of medicine students. Philosophical assumptions also helped Schommer-Aikens and Hutter make carefully and clear reasoning on the presented research findings.

Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions have also proved productive in helping them organize respondents’ thinking and arguments. Besides, presented assumptions have helped researchers identify the most appropriate tools to conduct the research. In most instances, tools used in collecting research data have considerable influence on the quality of research findings. Ideally, research questions and philosophical assumptions are essential aspects that help researchers identify the most appropriate research tools. Furthermore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions have assisted them identify the most appropriate research sampling. Although the research topic appears to be relatively complicated, researchers have used their assumptions and research findings from other scholars to identify their sample and research questions. The research findings further indicate that the research assumptions have assisted researchers devote their time on productive and relevant data and issues.

Furthermore, the identification of appropriate assumptions has helped researchers take multiple perspectives on the research topics. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter have used various theories and assumptions to defend their arguments and assumptions. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter also acknowledge the complexity of the research topics. Researchers have also used the existing literature to examine some of the aspects that complicate students thinking capacity. As a result, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter have engaged in flexible thinking to identify some of the social and cultural aspects that define individuals’ thinking capacity.

In addition, the assumptions have helped researchers acknowledge and appreciate the evolving nature of knowledge and skills. Although natural aspects define individual’s thinking capacity, emerging factors such as social integration and modern technology have changed the nature of knowledge. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter have also used their assumptions to omniscient authority. Scholars assert that most students believe that authority define students’ thinking capacity. However, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter argue that other social and psychological aspects have a role in defining students’ thinking and reasoning capacity (Tishman, Perkins, & Jay, 1995). Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter’s assumptions have largely shaped the direction of their study. The presented assumptions have also helped researchers make their conclusions in a reflective and thoughtful manner.

Relationship between assumptions and research methodology to the reading

Schommer-Aikens and Hutter assumptions and methodologies have largely defined the content of the reading. Kuhn argues that implicit theories of competence define individuals’ argumentative and reasoning capacity. Kuhn further states that arguments define the manner in which reasoning and higher order of thinking shape individuals reasoning capacity. Furthermore, research questions and tools define the quality of the respondents’ answers. In most instances, respondents prefer to present straightforward answers to the presented questions. Equally, Kuhn argues that research respondents believe that complex issues should be addressed with a certain degree of certainty. Kuhn further observes that theories help in defining real life situations. As a result, Kuhn has used various theoretical frameworks to support her arguments. Therefore, similar to Kuhn argument, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter reading reflect the complexity and intensity of their argument and research (Kuhn, 1992).

Besides, the research assumptions define the quantity and quality of the literature review in the reading. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter use research findings from other scholars to defend their assumptions. The use of the prevailing literature and research findings has helped researchers identify the most appropriate research methodology. Intensive use of literature review has also advanced the relevant and reliability of the reading. In most instances, the use of empirical data from other scholars advances the quality of research work. Besides, literature review helps readers and researchers understand the extent in which other scholars have undertaken researches on a given topic. Therefore, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter have used the existing literature to reveal areas that require further study.

Furthermore, the reading has indicated the number of respondents involved in the research. Ideally, research respondents’ help researchers collected adequate information and empirical data to support their assumptions and arguments. Therefore, based on the complicated nature of the research, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter used 174 adults to support their argument. The research sample included participants from various social and professional backgrounds. Equally, researchers relied on respondents from various ages. The objective of selecting participants from various backgrounds was to collect detailed information regarding the research topic. The use of individuals from various backgrounds also helped in collecting adequate information to support Schommer-Aikens and Hutter philosophical assumptions.

The study also presents close relationship between research materials and Schommer-Aikens and Hutter assumptions. The article presents research materials used by Schommer-Aikens and Hutter to gather relevant data to support their arguments. Schommer-Aikens and Hutter used open-ended questionnaires to gather data that supports their argument. Questionnaires helped Schommer-Aikens and Hutter collected relevant information that defines the quality of the article. Questionnaires also facilitated the collection of different views regarding the research topic. Furthermore, the research questionnaires focused on testing respondents’ skills and competence regarding the research topic. Besides, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter used the survey methodology to assess participants thinking dispositions. The assessment of the participants’ thinking disposition aimed at examining respondents thinking ability. The article literature review indicates that individual thinking capacity is defined by various factors. The available data further indicates that cultural issues such as gender have a role in defining individual’s thinking capacity. Therefore, the use of survey research methodology helped the researchers support the assumption that although natural aspects shape individuals thinking capacity, other aspects determine the quality of scholars’ presentations.

Therefore, based on the article content, Schommer-Aikens and Hutter has demonstrated their competent in identifying productive methodologies and data to support their assumptions. Although the research witnessed some challenges, the study managed to collect adequate empirical data support Schommer-Aikens and Hutter assumptions and arguments. The research finding indicates that all the collected data supported the researchers’ philosophical hypothesis. Most of the research respondents believed that complex knowledge requires the adoption of multiple thinking perspectives and flexibility. In addition, participants confirmed researchers’ argument that thinking process is a time-consuming process defined by various natural and social factors.




Kuhn, D. (1992). Thinking as argument. Harvard Educational Review, 62, (1), 155–178.

Perry,W. G (1968). Patterns of development in thought and values of students in a liberal             arts college. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Schommer-Aikins, M., & Hutter, R.,(2002). Epistemological Beliefs and Thinking About Everyday Controversial Issues. The Journal of Psychology, 136(1), 5–20

Tishman, S., Perkins, D. N., & Jay, E. (1995). The thinking classroom: Learning and             teaching in a culture of thinking. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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